Category Archives: Technical

Under Pressure: The Importance of Tyre Inflation

Under Pressure: The Importance of Tyre Inflation

Having the correct tyre pressure is important for numerous reasons. From tyre lifespan, to safety and fuel economy, having too much or too little air in your tyres can have wide-ranging implications.

In May, the MOT test in England, Scotland and Wales changed, and several new items to be tested were added, including checking if tyres are obviously underinflated. As well as this now being required by law, it might also be an opportunity to build trust with your customers by advising them of the issues with having under – or over – inflated tyres.

With fuel prices on the increase, you can advise customers that through having correctly-inflated tyres they can save money, in terms of fuel economy. Some 3% more fuel is used if the tyre inflation level is 6psi below what it should be.

TyreSafe, the UK charity dedicated to raising awareness of the importance of correct tyre maintenance and the dangers of defective and illegal tyres, estimates that under-inflated tyres cost UK consumers £600m per year. By regularly checking tyre pressures and making sure they are at 100% of the manufacturer-recommended psi, the lifespan of the tyres is maximised, which also saves money.

Under-inflated and defective tyres are the primary cause of most road traffic accidents. When tyres are not correctly inflated, braking performance is affected, which can lead to dangerous situations. Alarmingly however, over a third of tyres are being driven on roads at least 8psi below vehicle manufacturer recommendations.

Although it may seem obvious, it is important to remember that the air in a vehicle’s tyres carries the majority of the vehicle’s load, and tyres are the only contact point between the car and the road.

This ‘contact patch’ of an inflated tyre is only the size of the palm of your hand, so to have the best possible stability, this area needs to be flat to the road, which is achieved by having the correct tyre pressure.

Here are four tyre inflation scenarios:

■ When tyres are inflated to 100%, pressure is distributed evenly, meaning the tyre will achieve the maximum possible mileage and lifespan, and the vehicle will display optimum road handling and fuel consumption.

■ If tyres are only inflated to 60%, there will be extreme flexing in the rubber, leading to excessive heat build-up and presenting a major safety risk. In this scenario, tyre mileage is very low, at around 35%.

■ When people think of tyres not being inflated correctly, they tend to think of under-inflation, however, over-inflated tyres also present problems. For example, if tyres are over-inflated to 120%, there will be greater wear in the tread centre, leading to reduced mileage – around 10% lower than if the tyres were inflated at 100%.

■ The fourth and most common scenario is where a vehicle’s tyres are not quite fully inflated. When inflated to 80%, there is greater stress in the tyre shoulder, leading to a smaller contact area, which means reduced mileage of around three quarters of the optimum rate, and greater fuel consumption.

As well as it now being a requirement of the MOT to check if tyres are obviously under- inflated, mechanics can also build trust by advising customers of the benefits of regularly checking pressure, including greater safety, extended tyre lifespan, and savings on fuel consumption.

Rubber Soul – Looking after your Rubber-To-Metal Components

Rubber Soul – Looking after your Rubber-To-Metal Components

They’re not visibly prominent and many drivers won’t even be aware of their existence, but rubber-to- metal (RTM) components play a vital role in vehicle dynamics and safety. On occasions, workshops may need to explain this to a customer when justifying the replacement of damaged or worn parts that remain largely unseen. Take suspension strut and shock absorber top mounts as an example: in addition to preventing vibration and noise from intruding on passenger comfort, their condition directly affects steering, handling and braking characteristics.

What is RTM?

In simple terms, a rubber-to-metal component is a vulcanised rubber block bonded to metal (or plastic), used to join components or structures that must be isolated from noise and vibration – Fig 1 illustrates typical front axle locations. In practice, reaching an effective compromise between durability, safety and comfort involves many complex considerations when designing each individual RTM component to suit a specific vehicle model and purpose.

This leads to unique rubber/additive recipes and product designs to tune dynamic properties, while also meeting requirements such as high fatigue strength, resistance to ageing, temperature resistance, and recyclability. For this reason it is recommended to always use replacement parts from an original equipment manufacturer as fitted at the factory by many vehicle manufacturers. Parts from other sources that appear visually identical may for instance be constructed with rubber of unsuitable characteristics, e.g. hardness, or simply glued together rather than chemically bonded during vulcanisation.

The manufacturing process

Natural rubber comprises long polymer chains that can move independently of each other, allowing plastic deformation. To be suitable for RTM component construction it must be vulcanised to form an elastomer, which is both elastic and dimensionally stable. When making RTM parts, the rubber is also bonded to the metal substrate during the vulcanisation process. The metal is first primed, and then given a topcoat consisting of polymer solutions and other ingredients. The rubber/additives blend is then mixed with sulphur as a catalyst and moulded with the metal substrate under heat and pressure.

During the vulcanisation process, the metal interacts with the primer, the primer with the topcoat and the topcoat with the rubber. A very high modulus layer forms in the rubber next to the substrate, yielding a strong bond of only 10 to 20 microns in thickness. Meanwhile, polymer molecules in the rubber form cross-links, reducing the ability of the polymer chains to move independently. This allows the rubber to deform under stress but return to its original shape when the stress is relieved.

Safety, comfort and consequential wear

Shock absorbers must maintain tyre-to-road adhesion for good grip and braking. Worn top mounts reduce optimum tyre contact, resulting in longer braking distances and compromised handling, especially during critical avoidance manoeuvres. In addition, anti-lock braking and stability control systems can only function perfectly if all suspension components are in faultless condition.

Worn top mounts impair ride comfort, generating noise and transmitting vibrations into the vehicle interior. They also create higher loads on new shock absorbers and other suspension components such as drop links, which then wear more rapidly.

Top mount fault diagnosis

Wear in the top mounts may manifest itself through increased vibration, longer braking distances, or stiff/non-self-centring steering – symptoms that usually develop gradually and go unnoticed by the vehicle owner until a knocking noise prompts investigation.

Where possible without dismantling, visual inspection may reveal folds or cracks in the surface of the rubber (Fig 2) or the rubber detaching from the metal. Following strut removal, a thorough examination can be made and the top mount height compared with a new item (Fig 3). Although elastomer rubber does tend to settle under a static load, for a component in serviceable condition the height difference should be less than 2 to 3mm.

Workshop opportunities

At each service inspection, workshops should visually check the condition of the top mounts and for wear symptoms during a test drive, advising customers of any suspected faults. We recommend that top mounts are renewed each time the shock absorbers are replaced to ensure that vehicle safety and performance are maintained. No additional time is involved as the mounts need to be removed and replaced anyway, so this practice also boosts profit margins. Like shock absorbers, top mounts should always be replaced in pairs.

Active Suspension

Be Pro-Active – Active Suspension

The new Citroën C5 Aircross was launched in 2017, and KYB was selected as the Original Equipment supplier for the shock absorbers. The initial reviews in the automotive press described the behaviour of the vehicle as: “an ultra-comfortable hatchback with a unique personality”, with one commentator enthusing that “even before we’d driven our first mile, the improvements in comfort and overall refinement are little short of astonishing”.

Active suspension is starting to become a reality in passenger cars, and semi-active solutions are conquering more segments of the market. Thanks to the joint development between KYB and PSA, a suspension concept based on passive shock absorbers, capable of merging high performance with competitive costs, has been developed and applied to the Aircross. Citroën is calling the system Progressive Hydraulic Cushions.


Cutaway of shock absorber with double hydraulic stopper system.

The secret of this concept is a double hydraulic stops system. The total stroke of the shock absorbers can be divided into three differentiated parts, for which the shock absorber will provide different characteristics. The first part corresponds to the position around the center of the stroke. In this working area the conventional valving in the piston and the base valve provide the damping forces. The second and third parts correspond to the positions close to the end of the rebound and the compression strokes, with the hydraulic compression and rebound stops responsible for providing additional energy absorption.

This split allows the shock absorbers’ main valves to provide comfort and allows the hydraulic stops to take responsibility when more demanding situations are encountered. In order to achieve this effectively, both the rebound and compression stops have to be able to provide sufficient energy absorption and to have a very flexible response. The stops provide an unprecedented comfort level, and give what Citroën describes as a ‘flying carpet effect’, as the car feels like it’s flying over bumps and holes in the road.

KYB Europe’s General Manager for Aftermarket Product Management, Jean François Huan, explains: “This is another great example of the pioneering research and development that our OE engineers are famous for. I look forward to seeing how this new technology develops in the aftermarket”.

The challenges faced by KYB during the development of this double hydraulic stop system were reportedly huge. One important point was to keep the main damping law of the shock absorber invariable by the components that are part of the hydraulic stops. This goal was achieved by hydraulic and FEA calculations, and was verified by driving tests.

Another key requirement was to design the different components with sufficient robustness, in order that they withstand the high demands of the vehicle, even in the worst conditions. To be able to achieve this objective, KYB studied different material options and several geometries before reaching the optimal solution. Naturally, all components had to be built with the highest precision.

The working principle for the rebound stop is based on a reinforced plastic segment that is placed in the inner tube of the shock absorber through a deformation that defines the working area of the hydraulic rebound stop. When the rebound washer contacts the segment, a new oil chamber is created, meaning the oil is only capable of getting out of the chamber through the aperture of the segment. This controlled flow generates a hydraulic force that can be tuned with the adjustment of the segment opening. Additionally, the working area of this hydraulic stop can be tuned by changing the inner tube deformation length.

For the hydraulic compression stop, a similar principle is used. A new oil chamber is created by the interaction of a polymer component placed in the shock absorber piston and a metallic tube press fitted in the base valve assembly. The polymer part is built with some slots for the oil passage, which will allow tuning the efforts provided by the system. In order to achieve the desired maximum effort, a pre-compressed additional valve is placed in the base valve sub- assembly. The installation of the hydraulic compression stop enables the car manufacturer to simplify other suspension components, such as the compression bumper, as well as to redefine some structural parts, because of the lower efforts that will be transmitted to the vehicle chassis.

KYB was able to develop a system that combines robustness with a wide tuning range, which provides the vehicle with a soft damping when comfort is demanded and with excellent handling when control is needed. It is important to highlight that these features are met with a passive system, which assures an excellent response time and a competitive cost, according to the company. KYB is applying the double hydraulic stop system in other forthcoming vehicles in the European market – for instance the Citroën C4 Cactus – so keep an eye out!

Top Tips for Shock Replacement

Top Tips for Shock Replacement

It is recommended that three basic rules are observed when replacing shock absorbers:

  • Always replace in axle pairs, i.e. both front or both rear shock absorbers
  • Use original equipment (OE) quality replacements
  • Replace ancillary components of the shock absorber assembly at the same time

Always replace in axle pairs

The advice from OE manufacturers to always replace shock absorbers in axle pairs has been largely ignored by vehicle owners and workshops over the years, having been dismissed as a strategy to increase sales. The reality is that both shock absorbers on the same axle tend to do the same amount of work under the same environmental conditions and are subject to a similar degree of wear over time.

Gradual deterioration of a shock absorber’s performance with wear generally goes unnoticed by the driver. However, under heavy braking or during avoidance manoeuvres, there is a rough difference of 25% in damping force between a worn shock absorber and a new one on the same axle, which can lead to potentially dangerous consequences. The increasing complexity of newer steering and suspension designs means that minimising the variation in characteristics between components on the left and the right is even more critical in maintaining stability.

Use OE quality replacements

When advertising replacement shock absorbers, some manufacturers interpret ‘OE quality’ somewhat loosely in the descriptions of their products. In this case, it’s advisable to choose a brand that is actually supplied to the vehicle manufacturers as factory fitment.

OE shock absorbers may have different specifications for each engine size within the same vehicle model line-up to compensate for weight difference, and they are occasionally ‘handed’ (different left- and right-hand specifications). By contrast, many aftermarket parts compromise by covering an entire model range with the same shock absorber part number.

Replace ancillary components at the same time

In addition to new fasteners, three shock absorber-related items should be considered for replacement (Fig 1): the spring assister, commonly referred to as a bump stop, the gaiter, which protects the shock absorber piston rod from road debris, and the top suspension mount.

There is no additional work involved; all of these items are removed to gain access to the shock absorber.

Why is it important to replace these items?

The spring assister is certainly more important than ‘bump stop’ suggests; it supplements road spring compression at a predetermined point to prevent the suspension from bottoming out. More than a simple buffer, the assister’s material properties and design determine its behaviour at a vital time when the suspension is approaching its operating limit. It’s a crucial part of the shock absorber’s function and when it wears or gets damaged, the original operating characteristics of the vehicle are compromised.

Oil leaks from a shock absorber are a common reason for replacement. That leakage is likely to have been caused by road grit entering a split gaiter. When deposited on the shock absorber piston rod, it abrades the plating on the rod’s surface, causing roughness and creating the potential for corrosion. Either this and/or the grit itself tears the piston rod’s seal. Some of this oil and grit is retained by the spring assister, the structure of which subsequently degrades and attracts additional contaminants. Reusing this component on a new shock absorber is not recommended for obvious reasons.

A worn spring assister may separate into multiple segments (Fig 3). If only part of the assister is re-installed on the new shock absorber, the spring could become coilbound under extreme compression, transferring its energy directly to the vehicle structure and damaging the suspension turret or hub carrier. Detached spring assister fragments can also become trapped between the piston rod and seal, causing oil leakage.

We also recommend that the top suspension mounts are renewed whenever the shock absorbers are replaced. The top mount is a compliant rubber-to-metal component joining the shock absorber to the vehicle body (Fig 4).

It prevents suspension forces, noise and vibration being transferred to the cabin. Worn top mounts (Fig 5 & Fig 6) reduce optimum road contact, causing longer braking distances and compromised handling, as vehicle safety systems such as anti-lock braking and stability control programmes only function perfectly if all suspension components are in top condition.

Control Arms and Wishbones

Make a Wish: Control Arms and Wishbones

The control arm is an important component, responsible for ensuring not only ride comfort but also occupant safety. Mounting kerbs at high speed, poor road surfaces, material fatigue and high forces to which control arms are subjected are all factors that can cause them to fail.

Even just on starting and braking, the control arms are subjected to enormous tensile and compressive forces. In many cases, problems reported by customers such as increased steering wheel play, loud rolling noise, uneven tyre wear or a loss of ride comfort can be attributed to defective control arms or control arm bushes.

When a control arm’s final hour has passed and it’s completely worn out, the only helpful course of action is often to install a new one. Allowing a customer to continue to drive despite having a defective control arm can have expensive consequences and can pose a threat to safety – the erratic and delayed steering movements make the journey increasingly difficult and not only reduce the enjoyment of driving, but also the safety of the vehicle’s occupants. Furthermore, defects on control arms that aren’t repaired can cause damage to other suspension and steering components in the long term. Other parts of the axle, for instance, suffer as a result of the defective control arms, as the forces and movements then need to be compensated for by other components which are not designed for this function.

It is imperative to perform an axle alignment after replacing the control arms due to the fact that these have such a considerable influence on the car’s handling. Doing so ensures that they form one precisely balanced unit together with the struts. Axles that are not aligned or are incorrectly adjusted can lead to both a deterioration in handling and worn-out control arms.

Flushing a Hydraulic System – Why, and How?

Flushing a Hydraulic System – Why, and How?


The necessity to flush the hydraulic steering system has been talked about for many years, but do enough technicians know why this is so important and how to do so effectively?

Steering components deteriorate over time, and we are not just talking about the rack and pump. A leading cause of malfunctioning units is hose residue in the system. Hoses don’t just ‘up and break’, they deteriorate, they rot, they break away and cause rubber residue. In turn, these pieces pass through the system to plug up or gum up the valves and orifices in the rack and pump units, causing operational issues or failure.

Since hoses deteriorate from the inside- out, it is sometimes difficult to tell if they are failing just by carrying out a visual inspection. If the hose feels stiff, hard or spongy, replace all hoses in the system. Here’s why: the hoses are all made from a similar compound, so if one hose is in poor condition or rotten, it is a sure sign that they are all heading in that direction.

Fluid Contaminated with Rubber Fragments

How to flush a system

  1. Refer to the owner’s manual or manufacturer’s specifications to determine the correct fluid to be used in the power steering system and only use the recommended fluid, as the incorrect type will not lubricate the units and cause failure.
  2. With the rack and pinion hoses disconnected, place the outlet hose from the power steering pump into a waste container.
  3. Fill the pump reservoir to maximum with fresh fluid.
  4. Start the engine.
  5. Continue filling the pump reservoir with fresh fluid until the fluid coming from the pump outlet is running clean. Do not run the pump dry (without fluid).
  6. Stop the engine.
  7. Reconnect the lines to the rack.
  8. With no load on the front axle (wheels raised off the ground) perform two slow steering wheel turns from lock to lock.
  9. Refill the pump reservoir to maximum level.
  10. Start the engine and make sure that the pump reservoir always contains fluid to prevent air being sucked into the system.
  11. Perform several slow steering wheel turns lock to lock to remove any trapped air in the system.
  12. Perform a visual inspection of the complete steering system and check for leaks.
  13. Switch off the engine and check how far the fluid rises in the pump reservoir.
  14. If the fluid rises more than approximately 5mm in the reservoir, repeat the bleeding process.

Some pumps can be difficult to bleed. Air gets trapped in the system, resulting in a growling noise from the pump. Make sure all fittings are air tight by loosening slightly and re-tightening to the manufacturer’s torque specification. In addition, some Ford and Ford-related vehicles have a filter in the reservoir that can get blocked with debris. This needs cleaning or replacing to stop the risk of fluid starvation.

How to Replace the Rear Shocks on a Peugeot Partner

Shocking Results: How to Replace the Rear Shocks on a Peugeot Partner

KYB provides a walk-through of how to replace the rear shock absorbers on two van models: Citroen Berlingo and Peugeot 5008/Partner.

This fitting guide runs through the process for replacing rear shock absorbers on: Citroen Berlingo/Berlingo Multispace (04/2008 onwards), Peugeot Partner/Partner Tepee (04/2008 onwards) and Peugeot 5008 (06/2009 to 11/2013). There are just fewer than 300,000 of these vehicle models on the road in the UK. The estimated fitting time for front shock absorber replacement is up to 90 minutes per side.

Remove the spare tyre. For the Peugeot 5008, you can find the special access tool just below the lip of the boot wall.

Remove the protection shields and rubber straps from the axle.

On the right hand side, remove the heat shield above the exhaust, to give access to the coil spring. Use a compressor to remove the coil spring.

On the left hand side, use a handheld compressor to compress the coil spring, in order to remove it from the vehicle. Remove the bolts on the mounting plate above the shock absorber.

Remove the bottom bolt, then remove the shock absorber and mounting plate.

Remove the mounting plate from the shock absorber.

Attach the mounting plate to the top of the new shock absorber.

Ensure the alignment is at 90 ̊.

Reattach the shock absorber and mounting plate to the vehicle. Replace the coil springs and heat shield, followed by the axle protection shield and rubber straps. Finally, replace the spare tyre. KYB recommends that shock absorbers and coil springs are always fitted in axle pairs.


How To: Replacing Headlight Bulb in a Mk7 Golf

How To: Replacing Headlight Bulb in a Mk7 Golf

Philips has produced a number of useful step-by-step lighting fitment guides. In the first of the series, the lighting specialist walks us through the process on a VW Golf Mk7.

When it comes to changing headlights, cars vary hugely in complexity. For some vehicles, it’s relatively simple to open the bonnet and get to the back of the headlight, remove the old bulb and replace it with a new one. On others, it can be an altogether more fiddly and time-consuming process. To help technicians out, Philips has produced a number of useful step-by-step lighting fitment guides. In the first of the series, the lighting specialist walks us through the process on a VW Golf VII.

The Philips Automotive Lighting Europe YouTube Channel offers a range of both technical instructional videos and short product information films to make it easier for workshop technicians to change the bulbs on the most popular cars on the road. The range of bulbs on offer from the company is comprehensive and, as well as a full selection of replacement and upgrade Halogen and HID Xenon replacement bulbs, it also includes LED lighting options for various vehicle applications.

You also need the right tools for changing the bulb, so Philips offers a handy bulb fitting kit that includes Magill scissors that enable mechanics to reach into the tight areas of a vehicle to twist the bulbs out without getting their hands dirty. Also included is a flexible moveable mirror that allows you to see the hard to reach areas.

Volkswagen Golf VII – step-by- step guide

First, open the hood and secure it. Use the torx screwdriver to unscrew the three screws on the metal retainer bar, and then use the screwdriver to unscrew the four screws of the plastic cover of the cooling system. Now remove the ventilation grill.

The next task is to unscrew the headlight unit. Use a bigger diameter for the two screws on the back, and unplug the connector from the headlight unit. To replace the right side bulb, turn the wheel to the left, unscrew the mud guard, lift it up, and then use the socket wrench to unscrew the remaining screws at the back of the headlamp. Gently pull the headlight unit out, before removing the cover by turning it anti-clockwise. Turn the socket holder anti-clockwise to remove the bulb, and then pull the bulb out from the socket holder. Plug the new bulb into the socket holder, put it back inside the headlight in its original position, and then replace the cover. Gently replace the headlight unit and screw into place.

Repeat the procedure for the other headlight, and then reattach the ventilation grill and screw it in. Do the same for the metal retainer. Finally, close the hood.

Trip the Light Fantastic: Different Types of Bulbs and their Purpose

Trip the Light Fantastic: Different Types of Bulbs and their Purpose

Lumileds, the name behind the Philips Automotive Lighting product ranges, throws some light on the different types of headlights and the purpose they serve.

All headlights have the same main function, which is, of course, to illuminate the road in front of the vehicle. However, they differ in terms of the specific bulb types that they use to provide light. The three main bulbs that are used in headlights are Halogen, Xenon, and LED. Headlights may be classified according to the particular lighting technology that they utilise.

Halogen headlight

Halogen refers to a member of a certain group of five chemicals that are very reactive and poisonous. These chemicals are classifiedas non-metals. Halogen car lights are popularly used in headlights. Each bulb has a thin tungsten filament and a glass filament capsule filled with halogen gas. The gas routes back the tungsten to the filament so it regenerates the filament each time the headlight is turned on and used. A halogen bulb produces a bright, white light. Halogen headlight bulbs are manufactured and approved in accordance with the legal requirements (ECE R37).

Xenon headlight (HID)

Xenon is a highly unreactive gas that is colourless and odourless. It may be found in small quantities in the atmosphere. It may be extracted from liquefied air to be used for commercial purposes. Xenon is commonly used in headlights. It is utilised in some filament-based automotive lighting technologies. A xenon bulb emits a clean and white light and may also be used in HID (High Intensity Discharge) lighting. An HID bulb does not have a filament. Instead, it uses a xenon gas-charged, sealed system that generates light through an electrical charge that starts an arc between two electrodes.

LED headlight

A Light Emitting Diode is a semiconductor diode that gives off light when voltage is applied to it. The LED is a popular display and form of technology that is used in various kinds of electrical and electronic products. The LED produces light in less than a hemisphere. This means that it needs to be cooled from the back. As a result, an LED headlight may require a different design from halogen and xenon headlights. An LED headlight may potentially come in different designs because its small size makes it versatile.

Richard Armstrong, Business Development Manager Automotive at Lumileds, said: “Each type of headlight has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. That’s why the headlights that may be best for some drivers may not necessarily be the best for others. It depends on the particular priorities and needs of the motorist.

“Halogen headlights may be best for customers who are on a budget, as these types of lights provide good performance for a relatively lower cost than other types of headlights. Xenon headlights, on the other hand, may be ideal for buyers who value bright illumination, because it emits a very strong light. LED headlights may be appropriate for customers who prioritise efficient energy consumption. One type of headlight is not necessarily better or superior to the others, although it may be a more appropriate choice for certain motorists.”

The range of Philips bulbs is comprehensive and, as well as a full selection of replacement and upgrade Halogen and HID Xenon replacement bulbs, it also includes LED lighting options for various vehicle applications.

It Takes Two: Replacing Bulbs in Pairs

It Takes Two: Replacing Bulbs in Pairs

In this article, Philips explains why garages should change headlights in pairs to promote visibility, safety and customer care.

It’s safer and makes sense to change headlamp bulbs in pairs because lamps deteriorate faster as they get older. When the first one blows, the second will probably fail shortly after. It’s a smarter, more convenient and more economic approach to maintenance. Two new lamps are brighter so the motorist can see further and get a balanced view of the road. Garages make an extra sale with another bulb and a slight increase in labour time as some cars can be complicated to change one bulb – so it makes sense to change both at the same time.

A simple way to boost profits and look after your customer without requiring any additional labour time is to recommend high performance halogens. Upgrading requires no more effort than installing a standard bulb, with no wiring changes or time-consuming installation needed, and will generate more profit for the garage.

Richard Armstrong, of Lumileds, the UK distributor of Philips Automotive Lighting Products, says, “Light is fundamental to driving, and light is the first and only part of the safety circle that actually helps prevent accidents. Philips promotes active safety protection to prevent accidents by increasing overall visibility and road illumination. This allows drivers to be seen sooner and to see further down the road so they can avoid potential hazards.

“Our OE quality headlamp bulbs typically last longer than non-OE bulbs as we pay extra attention to quality and testing during manufacture. It reduces the likelihood of an ‘early failure’, which is when a lamp blows soon after fitting due to production faults, rather than wear. If you replace both headlamps with matching OE parts, there’s a very good chance that they’ll last as long as each other.

Heading up the Philips offer is RacingVision – the first halogen bulb to be rated at +150% compared to the industry standard – which according to the company, proved itself to be the best performing halogen headlamp bulb on the market, in a respected vehicle headlight test.

Even split seconds can make a crucial difference to drivers’ safety. The beam performance of the Philips RacingVision headlamp helps drivers identify dangerous situations faster and stay in control of their vehicle – whatever road conditions they are facing.The specific colour temperature (up to 3,500 Kelvin) of RacingVision bulbs also helps drivers’ eyes focus better. They therefore have greater control and confidence, and can relax into a safer and more enjoyable journey.

Philips also advises garages to offer spare kits with all necessary replacement lamps to face any failure that could occur to purchase to ensure safety on the road. Offering a large variety of spare bulbs, Philips Spare Kits fit on average 90% of the car parc, and are an ideal choice for drivers concerned about their safety.