Category Archives: Land rover

How to fit a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Full clutch replacement guide for a TD4 2.0 4×4 model Land Rover Freelander from the experts at Schaeffler Automotive Aftermarket.

Land Rover launched the Freelander in 1997 with four engine variants – 1.8, 2.0 and 2.5 V6 petrol, as well as a 2.0 diesel, with either manual or automatic transmission. It was released as a compact SUV, with production running until 2014, before the launch of the Freelander 2 in 2006 with improved ground clearance and better off- road capabilities.

For the vehicle featured in this month’s clinic the initial fault reported was that the vehicle was difficult to get into gear and the biting point on the pedal was very low. Luckily the problem was easy to diagnose: when opening the bonnet the distinctive smell of burnt clutch was apparent and, following further questions to the customer, it was revealed that the vehicle had been used for heavy towing on the previous day.

Getting started

The ideal choice of workshop equipment required for this repair is a two-post ramp, an engine support and a transmission jack.

When checking the vehicle in, always make sure the locking wheel bolt key is available and remember that the radio code will require inputting on completion.

With the vehicle on the ramp (but not raised), starting in the engine bay, disconnect and remove the battery and the battery carrier, then remove the inlet pipes and ducting (see below).

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We can now gain access to the top bell housing bolts and the starter motor bolts.

Now disconnect the clutch pipe close to the gearbox by pushing in the nylon release clip at the connection. Slacken the N/S wheel bolts, raise the vehicle to waist height and then remove the N/S wheel, before raising the vehicle to full height and removing the front under trays and framework (see below).

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We now need to remove the centre section of the front sub-frame – also known as “the table”. This is done by disconnecting the front wishbones from the centre sub-frame, disconnecting the anti-roll bar links, disconnecting the engine stabiliser, supporting the centre sub-frame, then removing the two sub-frame mounting bolts and centre sub-frame (see below).

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Drain the oil from the gearbox and the transfer box (Intermediate Reduction Drive unit) and, when the oil has drained, the drive shafts can be snapped out of the gearbox and IRD unit and removed by pulling outwards on the bottom wishbones. At this point we can tie back the N/S wishbone and driveshaft to give more room for the gearbox removal.

Remove the bolts from the front prop shaft joint and disconnect the prop shaft from the IRD and secure (see below).

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We’re now in a position to remove the IRD unit, and then the engine stabiliser mounting from the engine and the additional support bracket above. Now disconnect the coolant pipes and breather from the IRD unit, remove the four bolts that hold the IRD unit to the gearbox and then remove the IRD unit and store in a safe area (see below).

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Disconnect the two ball joints from the gear linkage on the gearbox and remove the multi-plugs from the reverse light switch and speedo unit. Now remove the remaining bell housing bolts, leaving two accessible bolts to hold the gearbox, support the engine and then lower the vehicle to remove the gearbox mounting from the top of the gearbox. Raise the vehicle and remove the final two bell housing bolts, before lowering the engine slightly to allow more room. You can now remove the gearbox from the dowels and rotate the gearbox 90° clockwise, which should then give you enough clearance to remove the gearbox completely (see below).

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Remove the clutch assembly (in this instance over-heating was evident) and then test the dual mass flywheel with the correct tool for excess free play and rock (see below).

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In this example we replaced the DMF as the customer had requested for this to be done. Remove the concentric slave cylinder assembly from the bell housing and clean the bell housing, before fitting the new concentric slave cylinder assembly to the gearbox; the new concentric cylinder is factory pre-filled and therefore should not require bleeding when the gearbox is installed.

Check the clutch plate fits the splines on the gearbox input shaft. This is now an ideal time to lubricate the gearbox input shaft and clutch splines with high melting point grease, wiping off any excess after the clutch plate has been checked on the splines and then replacing the clutch using a clutch alignment tool (see below).

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Before installing the gearbox, check that the alignment dowels are located correctly and, once checked, we’re now ready to install the gearbox. Install the gearbox in reverse order of removal, not forgetting that the gearbox and IRD unit have to be re-filled with the correct specifications and quantities of oil. Now reconnect the clutch pipe, which shouldn’t require bleeding as the system is pre-filled.

Once the vehicle is up and running, enter the radio code and carry out a road test to check the clutch, reverse lights and speedometer for correct operation.

Clutch Replacement – Land Rover Freelander 2.0 TD4

The Land Rover Freelander was first released back in 1997 and has gone on to sell over 190,000 vehicles in the UK alone. As a result of this popularity over the years there are now plenty of these vehicles in the UK aftermarket and chances are you may be seeing a Freelander in your workshop sometime soon.

A clutch replacement on the Freelander can be a little tricky but with the guidance of LuK the whole process will become much clearer. Nothing out of the ordinary is needed to complete the job, the only special tools required are an engine support beam, transmission jack and a long axle stand. A two-post ramp was used and is ideal. If the vehicle has alloy wheels fitted then it’ll probably have locking wheel bolts. So make sure you find the locking key before you start because once you disconnect the battery you may not be able to open the boot.

Disconnect the battery terminals, loosen the clamp bolt and lift out the battery. Remove the four bolts securing the battery tray and lift it out (pictured below) making sure you unclip the attached wiring harness.

Remove the plenum chamber by undoing the three jubilee clips. Undo the accessible upper bell housing bolts and install the engine support beam. Undo and remove the engine mounting and the two starter motor bolts. Raise the vehicle and remove both front road wheels. Undo and lower the plastic/metal undertray and release the n/s and o/s dust covers. Undo and release the anti-roll bar links (see first picture below) on both sides and do the same with both lower suspension arms. Remove the engine lower steady bar bolts and remove the bar (see second picture below).

Mark the position of the subframe with a marker then undo and remove both front suspension arm rear joints. With some support release the subframe and lower it to the floor. Drain the transfer box and the gearbox oil then remove both front hub nuts (see first picture below) and release the driveshafts completely. Mark the front propshaft connected to the transfer box and unbolt the propshaft (see second picture below).

Remove the upper and lower transfer box brackets. Clamp the transfer box coolant pipes and remove them. Undo the four bolts holding the transfer box to the gearbox and release. Lower the transfer box to the floor using a transmission jack, making sure you remove the metal breather pipe beforehand (pictured below).

Remove the cover plate bolt at the rear of the gearbox and the bell housing bolts that the transfer box was covering. Undo the two electrical connectors on the gearbox and release the gear selector mechanism. With support, undo the final bell housing bolts and lower the gearbox down slightly. This should give you better access to knock out the gearbox selector dowel (pictured below) and release the selector weights. With the selector weights out of the way you can now lower the gearbox to the floor.

Unbolt the worn clutch, making a note of which way the driven plate is fitted. Check the condition of the flywheel and clean off any debris with a suitable solvent applied to a rag. Make sure the crankshaft rear oil seal and the gearbox first motion shaft seal are in good condition with no leaks. With the clutch removed, check the dual mass flywheel (DMF) for signs of heat stress and evidence of grease loss. The DMF should also be tested for freeplay and rock between the primary and secondary masses (LuK tool number 400 0080 10 is specifically designed for this purpose on all LuK manufactured DMF’s). Full instructions and tolerance data for all LuK DMFs are contained on a CD which comes with this special tool.

The concentric slave cylinder (CSC) should always be replaced when a new clutch is fitted, it is designed to last the life of the clutch not the vehicle. Clean the first motion shaft splines and any debris from the bell housing (especially important when a release bearing has failed). Remember, if the bearing or sleeve is made of plastic there is no need for lubrication. If both parts are metal then a high melting point grease should be used and not copper-based products. Put a small dab of grease on the first motion shaft splines and make sure the new driven plate slides freely back and forth.

This not only spreads the grease evenly but also makes sure you have the correct kit. Wipe any excess grease off the shaft and driven plate hub. Using a universal alignment tool and checking the driven plate is the correct way round (note “Getriebe Seite” is German for “Gearbox Side”) the clutch can be bolted to the flywheel evenly and sequentially.

Before fitting the gearbox make sure the locating dowels are in place and not damaged. Refit any that have become dislodged and refit the gearbox. Make sure the gearbox bell housing bolts are secured before lowering the transmission jack. Rebuild is the reverse of removal, not forgetting to refill the gearbox with oil and quantity specified by the manufacturer.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

A clutch replacement can be a little tricky on a Freelander, so with some guidance from LuK, this handy technical guide should prove its worth for any UK independent aftermarket garage looking to undertake this repair.

No special tools are required for the replacement, and we used a two-post ramp and two transmission jacks for this example. If the vehicle is installed with alloy wheels then ensure that the locking wheel nut tool is available before any repair is started.

Battery securing clamp

Remove the top battery cover, disconnect the battery terminals and stow safely. Remove the battery securing clamp and lift out the battery. Disconnect the mass air flow (MAF) sensor switch from the air filter box and stow.

Remove the air filter box and battery housing and remove the support plate (Fig 1 below).

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 1

Detach the gear linkage cables from the link arms and remove from the bracket and stow. Disconnect the two switches from the gearbox and stow (Fig 2), before disconnecting the hydraulic pipe from the gearbox.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 2

Remove the two accessible bell housing bolts from the top and also the three starter motor bolts; one of the bolts from the starter motor also holds a bracket for the wiring harness. Stow safely with the use of a cable tie.

Raise the vehicle and remove both front wheels. Drain the gearbox oil and remove four screws – two each side – from underneath the front bumper, as this holds the bottom section of the wheel arch liner.

Remove the lower section wheel arch liner that is held in place by four nuts – two each side. Undo and release the lower suspension arm links on both sides. Remove four bolts – two each side – through the subframe to release the anti-roll bar (Fig 3) and undo two more bolts – one each side – through the subframe that secures the steering rack.  Secure the steering rack using cable ties.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 3

Detach the exhaust from the exhaust hanger. Remove the rear cross member and disconnect the fuel pipes from the bracket on the subframe. Using two transmission jacks, support the subframe. Remove two bolts – one each side – that hold the front of the subframe; there is also a bracket but this doesn’t need to be removed (Fig 4). Undo all the remaining subframe bolts and carefully lower and move away from the work area.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 4

Jubilee clips

Remove the steel section of the intercooler pipe by removing the bolt from the front bracket (Fig 5) and the nut from the rear bracket (Fig 6).

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 5

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 6

Undo the jubilee clips securing the rubber pipe section and detach. Undo the drive shaft bolts on both sides and detach the drive shaft sections from the wheel; you’ll have to remove a bracket holding the right hand side driveshaft in place – this is located on the lower engine/subframe mount (Fig 7).

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 7

Detach the drive shaft sections from the transmission and the engine/subframe mount can now be removed to allow access to the transmission box. Undo the prop shaft bolts and detach from the transfer box. Remove the breather pipe and undo the seven bolts securing the transfer box, before lowering.

Remove the starter motor bracket and three remaining bell housing bolts. Disconnect the earth cable from the gearbox (Fig 8) and, finally, remove the gearbox mount. Carefully lower the gearbox to the floor.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Freelander

Fig 8

Remove the worn clutch cover and clutch plate. In this example the dual mass flywheel (DMF) was also replaced with the clutch and bearing; however, in most cases, you have no need to replace the DMF, as this can be checked whilst on the vehicle for signs of heat stress and evidence of grease loss.

The DMF should also be tested for free play and rock between the primary and secondary masses. The DMF installed on this vehicle has a rotational free play movement of 17° – o r 6 ring gear teeth – and a maximum rock movement of 2.9mm.

LuK tool number 400008010 is specifically designed for this purpose. Full instructions and DMF tolerances can be found by searching ‘DMF data sheet’ at www.schaeffler-aftermarket.com. Clean the first motion shaft splines and any debris from the bell housing, which is especially important when a release bearing has failed.

Put a small dab of high melting point grease – not a copper-based product – on the first motion shaft splines and make sure the new driven plate slides freely back and forth. This not only spreads the grease evenly, but also makes sure you have the correct kit. Wipe any excess grease off the shaft and driven plate hub.

Using a universal alignment tool, and checking the driven plate is the correct way round (note “Getriebe Seite” is German for “Gearbox Side”), the clutch can be bolted to the flywheel evenly and sequentially.

Before fitting the gearbox, make sure the locating dowels are in place and not damaged. Refit any that have become dislodged and refit the gearbox. Make sure the gearbox bell housing bolts are secured before lowering the jack. Refitting is the reverse of the removal.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

Launched back in 1989, the Discovery is now into its fourth generation with over 175,000 on UK roads today. Here the folk from LuK – a brand of Schaeffler Automotive Aftermarket – take a closer look at a clutch replacement on the Discovery 3 2.7tdv6:

Nothing out of the ordinary is required to complete this job other than three transmission jacks and a two-post ramp. All the work is completed from underneath the vehicle but it is best practice to first disconnect the battery earth terminal and stow safely. Once this is done the vehicle can be raised carefully to start.

Remove the heat shield above the rear prop shaft. Mark the position of the prop shaft and remove the six torx bolts holding it to the transfer box. Remove the four torx bolts holding the prop shaft to the rear axle and, finally, the two torx bolts holding the central support bearing. Lower the prop shaft carefully. Mark the position of the front prop shaft and remove the six torx bolts holding it to the transfer box before removing.

Lower the transmission

Remove the large metal undertray. Support the transmission and then remove the transfer box cross member.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

This should allow you to lower the transmission slightly, making it a little easier to gain access to the top of the transfer box and gearbox. Disconnect the electrical connectors and the earth leads from the transmission and stow them safely.
Remove the bracket from the top of the gearbox that holds in place a wiring loom.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

The bracket also hides two top bell housing bolts. Stow the wiring loom safely. Disconnect the first gear linkage from above the gearbox.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

Then disconnect the quick fit connector from the slave cylinder and clamp off the hydraulics.

How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

Using the two other transmission jacks, support the transfer box and gearbox as this will be removed as one complete unit; we will not separate the transfer box. Remove the one breather pipe from the top of the gearbox and the second breather pipe from on top of the transfer box.
How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

Release the turbo bracket on the nearside of the gearbox. Undo the fuel filter support bracket and stow the unit to the side. Remove all of the bell housing bolts. Lower the gearbox a little more and slightly move towards the nearside – this is to allow room to remove the locking pin from the second gear selector linkage.
How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

Make sure the electrical connector is removed from the side of the gearbox.
How to change a clutch on a Land Rover Discovery

The gearbox and transfer box can now be lowered as one unit carefully by using the transmission jacks.

Checking the DMF

With the clutch removed, check the dual mass flywheel (DMF) for signs of heat stress and evidence of grease loss. The DMF should also be tested for freeplay and rock between the primary and secondary masses – LuK tool number 400 0080 10 is specifically designed for this purpose on all LuK manufactured DMFs. Full instructions and tolerance data for all LuK DMFs are contained on a CD which comes with this special tool.

Clean the first motion shaft splines and any debris from the bell housing (especially important when a release bearing has failed). Remember, if the bearing or sleeve is made of plastic there is no need for lubrication. If both parts are metal then a high melting point grease should be used and not copper-based products.

Put a small dab of grease on the first motion shaft splines and make sure the new driven plate slides freely back and forth. This not only spreads the grease evenly but also makes sure you have the correct kit. Wipe any excess grease off the shaft and driven plate hub. Using a universal alignment tool and checking the driven plate is the correct way round (note “Getriebe Seite” is German for “Gearbox Side”) the clutch can be bolted to the flywheel evenly and sequentially.

Before fitting the gearbox, make sure the locating dowels are in place and not damaged. Refit any that have become dislodged and refit the gearbox. Make sure the gearbox bell housing bolts are secured before lowering the jack. Refitting is the reverse of the removal.

Product test – Diagnostic Associates DA-ST512 Service Tool

With JLR models a regular fixture in his workshop, Darren Cotton of AVC UK in Surrey was only too happy to put a new, specialist diagnostic servicing tool through its paces.

When it comes to identifying the right diagnostic tool for your business, there are many choices available to workshops. Some may be ‘all-makes’ or ‘universal’ in their coverage, while others are specifically designed for the more specialist user.

Either way, with most tools making pretty bold claims in terms of their capability, it always helps to be able to try them out first. I was happy, therefore, to take the DA-ST512 Service Tool from Diagnostic Associates for a test drive this month, and to let PMM’s readers know my thoughts.

This unit certainly falls into the ‘specialist’ diagnostic category and has been derived from the popular range of service ‘dongles’ that Diagnostic Associates launched to market in recent times. Specifically designed (and approved) for Jaguar/Land Rover vehicles, it is a dedicated servicing tool that also doubles up as a ‘Pass-Thru’ unit to work with SDD (Symptom Driven Diagnostics). 

Tool basics
The DA-ST512 comes as a handheld unit that connects directly to the OBD2 diagnostic connector and, using its simple menu structure displayed on the back-lit LCD screen, it will perform a vast amount of applications on JLR models (2005 onwards).

The device is very easy to use, extremely quick and has a high quality feel to it. It also benefits from a long lead that is attached to the diagnostic socket to make manoeuvring light work.
The unit will power up instantly when connected to the OBD2 socket and, with the ignition on, it identifies the vehicle within seconds, displaying the vehicle details and VIN. Using its dynamic menu system, it is able to identify which of the installed applications are suitable for the vehicle it is connected to, meaning you can go straight into the function you desire.

Available functions
The basic operation package consists of six applications:
1. Service Interval Reset (SIR)
2. DPF Dynamic Regeneration (DPFDR)
3. DPF Adaption Reset (DPFAR)
4. Electronic Park Brake Release (EPBR)
5. Tight Tolerance Mode Toggle (TTMT)
6. VCI Gateway Module (J2534)

It also features another 17 applications that are available for a small fee, however all can be used on a ‘trial’ basis for a maximum of three times before the function is made unavailable (until you pay for it that is!). This is a great feature because if you were looking to add an application you can ‘try before you buy’ – something I’ve not seen on many tools before.

Putting it to the test
So what sort of use did I get out of the applications? The short (and honest) answer is ‘plenty’. Here’s a quick overview of the types of task I was able to undertake during the test period:

Electronic Park Brake Release (EBPR)
This function will force the brake to move back to its mount mode and release the brake pads from the disc, enabling you to replace the brake pads safely. In the case of Land Rover vehicles it can also perform the ‘un-jam’ function before moving to the mount position. The device again made a rapid connection and readers will no doubt agree that functions like this save a lot of time in the workshop.

Diesel Particulate Filter Dynamic Regeneration (DPFDR)
Having this on the tool is very handy, as it negates the need to tie up SDD or any other device you would use for this operation. Like all the applications on this device, it only takes around 30 seconds to start the procedure. Once the vehicle has reached target temperature, and if the soot content is higher than 60 grams, the unit will emit an audible sound for three seconds at 10 second intervals. This now means the vehicle must be driven above 40kph for 15 minutes before a short, high-pitched sound confirms the process is performing correctly.

Service Interval Reset (SIR)
This was the most popular application that I made use of. Other tools on the market seem to struggle with resetting JLR service lights after servicing but the DA-ST512 had no such problems. Within 30 seconds of connecting the device, the application will remove the service warning from the instrument cluster and reset the counters (including oil counter reset, where applicable) and this worked every time…

Read/Clear Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
This function allows you to read and clear the DTCs for all the ECUs on the vehicle or you can select an individual network such as: H Can, Low Can and MOST. It’s very quick and displays the codes correctly, along with manufacture code and description. Adding the live data viewer to the device will also give you some quick assistance and information to aid your diagnosis.

Tight Tolerance Mode Toggle (TTMT)
If you carry out wheel alignment in your workshop then this application is vital. The vehicle’s suspension (on some associated models) will need to be locked at a known level to allow geometry checks and adjustments – this is where you will need to use TTMT.

Headlamp levelling
Which is a typical task for body repair shops – can’t be done correctly if the conditions are not met, so the tool again proved very proficient in this area. The process can take up to two minutes to enter or, if you walk away and leave it in TTMT, a “PROCEDURE COMPLETE” message will be displayed.

J2534 Symptom Driven Diagnostics
This function is one of the tool’s hidden gems: one minute it’s a quick service unit, carrying out all of the aforementioned functions, and the next it will double up as a Pass-Thru device which can work in conjunction with SDD to give you main dealer capabilities.

For the function to work you just download the driver from the Diagnostic Associates website. This is very simple to do and works very well, however the instructions for installing and connecting must be followed precisely. Again, this is all featured on DA’s website.

Device registration and updating
This process couldn’t be any simpler and only takes a few minutes. Once registered, you can download the DA App Hub (a PC-based application) from the Diagnostic Associates website and this will allow you to update the current applications you have on the device (for FREE). It’s very easy to navigate and will instantly display the updates that are available on the home screen. Furthermore, you can purchase a raft of additional applications (such as suspension height calibration) as you see fit. All of these cost between £15 and £55 and represent excellent value-for-money.

VERDICT: A cracking, cost-effective unit that I’d recommend to any workshops that want to improve their JLR servicing capabilities!