Category Archives: Citroen

Active Suspension

Be Pro-Active – Active Suspension

The new Citroën C5 Aircross was launched in 2017, and KYB was selected as the Original Equipment supplier for the shock absorbers. The initial reviews in the automotive press described the behaviour of the vehicle as: “an ultra-comfortable hatchback with a unique personality”, with one commentator enthusing that “even before we’d driven our first mile, the improvements in comfort and overall refinement are little short of astonishing”.

Active suspension is starting to become a reality in passenger cars, and semi-active solutions are conquering more segments of the market. Thanks to the joint development between KYB and PSA, a suspension concept based on passive shock absorbers, capable of merging high performance with competitive costs, has been developed and applied to the Aircross. Citroën is calling the system Progressive Hydraulic Cushions.


Cutaway of shock absorber with double hydraulic stopper system.

The secret of this concept is a double hydraulic stops system. The total stroke of the shock absorbers can be divided into three differentiated parts, for which the shock absorber will provide different characteristics. The first part corresponds to the position around the center of the stroke. In this working area the conventional valving in the piston and the base valve provide the damping forces. The second and third parts correspond to the positions close to the end of the rebound and the compression strokes, with the hydraulic compression and rebound stops responsible for providing additional energy absorption.

This split allows the shock absorbers’ main valves to provide comfort and allows the hydraulic stops to take responsibility when more demanding situations are encountered. In order to achieve this effectively, both the rebound and compression stops have to be able to provide sufficient energy absorption and to have a very flexible response. The stops provide an unprecedented comfort level, and give what Citroën describes as a ‘flying carpet effect’, as the car feels like it’s flying over bumps and holes in the road.

KYB Europe’s General Manager for Aftermarket Product Management, Jean François Huan, explains: “This is another great example of the pioneering research and development that our OE engineers are famous for. I look forward to seeing how this new technology develops in the aftermarket”.

The challenges faced by KYB during the development of this double hydraulic stop system were reportedly huge. One important point was to keep the main damping law of the shock absorber invariable by the components that are part of the hydraulic stops. This goal was achieved by hydraulic and FEA calculations, and was verified by driving tests.

Another key requirement was to design the different components with sufficient robustness, in order that they withstand the high demands of the vehicle, even in the worst conditions. To be able to achieve this objective, KYB studied different material options and several geometries before reaching the optimal solution. Naturally, all components had to be built with the highest precision.

The working principle for the rebound stop is based on a reinforced plastic segment that is placed in the inner tube of the shock absorber through a deformation that defines the working area of the hydraulic rebound stop. When the rebound washer contacts the segment, a new oil chamber is created, meaning the oil is only capable of getting out of the chamber through the aperture of the segment. This controlled flow generates a hydraulic force that can be tuned with the adjustment of the segment opening. Additionally, the working area of this hydraulic stop can be tuned by changing the inner tube deformation length.

For the hydraulic compression stop, a similar principle is used. A new oil chamber is created by the interaction of a polymer component placed in the shock absorber piston and a metallic tube press fitted in the base valve assembly. The polymer part is built with some slots for the oil passage, which will allow tuning the efforts provided by the system. In order to achieve the desired maximum effort, a pre-compressed additional valve is placed in the base valve sub- assembly. The installation of the hydraulic compression stop enables the car manufacturer to simplify other suspension components, such as the compression bumper, as well as to redefine some structural parts, because of the lower efforts that will be transmitted to the vehicle chassis.

KYB was able to develop a system that combines robustness with a wide tuning range, which provides the vehicle with a soft damping when comfort is demanded and with excellent handling when control is needed. It is important to highlight that these features are met with a passive system, which assures an excellent response time and a competitive cost, according to the company. KYB is applying the double hydraulic stop system in other forthcoming vehicles in the European market – for instance the Citroën C4 Cactus – so keep an eye out!

How to Replace the Rear Shocks on a Peugeot Partner

Shocking Results: How to Replace the Rear Shocks on a Peugeot Partner

KYB provides a walk-through of how to replace the rear shock absorbers on two van models: Citroen Berlingo and Peugeot 5008/Partner.

This fitting guide runs through the process for replacing rear shock absorbers on: Citroen Berlingo/Berlingo Multispace (04/2008 onwards), Peugeot Partner/Partner Tepee (04/2008 onwards) and Peugeot 5008 (06/2009 to 11/2013). There are just fewer than 300,000 of these vehicle models on the road in the UK. The estimated fitting time for front shock absorber replacement is up to 90 minutes per side.

Remove the spare tyre. For the Peugeot 5008, you can find the special access tool just below the lip of the boot wall.

Remove the protection shields and rubber straps from the axle.

On the right hand side, remove the heat shield above the exhaust, to give access to the coil spring. Use a compressor to remove the coil spring.

On the left hand side, use a handheld compressor to compress the coil spring, in order to remove it from the vehicle. Remove the bolts on the mounting plate above the shock absorber.

Remove the bottom bolt, then remove the shock absorber and mounting plate.

Remove the mounting plate from the shock absorber.

Attach the mounting plate to the top of the new shock absorber.

Ensure the alignment is at 90 ̊.

Reattach the shock absorber and mounting plate to the vehicle. Replace the coil springs and heat shield, followed by the axle protection shield and rubber straps. Finally, replace the spare tyre. KYB recommends that shock absorbers and coil springs are always fitted in axle pairs.


Clutch Replacement – Citroen C1

The Citroën C1 was created in 2005 from a joint project between PSA Peugeot Citroën and Toyota. This popular city car has sold over 64,000 models in the UK and is starting to become a regular sight in the aftermarket.

Replacing a clutch on the C1 can be a little tricky, but with the guidance of LuK the whole process will become much easier. Nothing out of the ordinary is needed to complete the job, the only special tools required are a transmission jack, an engine support beam and a long axle stand. A two-post ramp was used in this example as a four-post ramp may not provide enough clearance.

For safety reasons its considered best practice to disconnect the battery earth lead before commencing work. If the vehicle has alloy wheels it may be fitted with anti-theft wheel bolts, so make sure you have the key before you start.

Disconnect the battery cables, remove the support clamp and lift the battery out. Undo the small satellite fuse box (not forgetting the hidden bolt at the rear (pictured below)) and stow it to one side.

Release the attached wiring harness from the battery tray and remove the tray, making sure you find the hidden bolt through the hole on the tray (pictured below).

Remove the securing clips on the gear linkage cables (pictured below) and the large tension spring. Undo and release the clutch cable from the transmission and stow it to one side. Unclip the reverse light switch and remove the bracket.

Install the support beam and undo the upper bell housing bolts and the starter motor upper bolt. Remove the gearbox supporting bracket (pictured below).

Remove the gearbox cover plate
Raise the vehicle and remove the N/S/F wheel. Remove the gearbox cover plate above the exhaust and disconnect the oxygen sensor. Drain the gearbox oil and undo the lower arm (pictured below) castle nut and pin and release the N/S drive shaft.

Undo the final starter motor bolt (pictured below, left) and remove the rear gearbox mounting (pictured below, right). Finally remove the remaining lower bell housing bolts and, while supporting the gearbox, pull it back to access the clutch and release bearing.

  

With the clutch removed, check to see if the vehicle has a Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) fitted. If it has it will need to be checked for signs of heat stress and evidence of grease loss. The DMF should also be tested for freeplay and rock between the primary and secondary masses – LuK tool number 400 0080 10 is specifically designed for this purpose on all LuK manufactured DMFs. Full instructions and tolerance data for all LuK DMFs are contained on a CD which comes with this special tool.

Clean the first motion shaft splines and any debris from the bell housing (especially important when a release bearing has failed). Put a small dab of high melting point grease (not a copper-based product) on the first motion shaft splines and make sure the new driven plate slides freely back and forth. This not only spreads the grease evenly but also makes sure you have the correct kit. Wipe any excess grease off the shaft and driven plate hub. Using a universal alignment tool and checking the driven plate is the correct way round (note ‘Getriebe Seite’ is German for ‘Gearbox Side’), the clutch can be bolted to the flywheel evenly and sequentially.

Before fitting the gearbox make sure the locating dowels are in place and not damaged, refit any that have become dislodged. Inspect the release fork, cross shaft and bushes for wear and tear and refit the gearbox. Make sure the gearbox bell housing bolts are secured before lowering the jack. Refitting is the reverse of the removal.

Clutch Replacement – Citroën C2

A clutch replacement on the Citroen can be a little tricky but with the guidance of the experts at LuK the whole process will become much easier. Nothing out of the ordinary is needed to complete the job, the only special tools required are a transmission jack, an engine support cradle and a long axle stand. A two-post ramp was used in this example as a four-post ramp may not provide enough clearance.

For safety reasons its considered best practice to disconnect the battery earth lead before commencing work. If the vehicle has alloy wheels it may be fitted with anti-theft wheel bolts, so make sure you have the key before you start.

Open the bonnet, remove the two piece battery cover and disconnect the battery. Lift out the battery and release the ECU pack (pictured below) inside the tray and stow it to one side.

Release and remove the plastic divider separating the other ECUs from the battery tray. Remove the air filter housing by removing the plastic clip and releasing the jubilee clip (pictured below).

Unbolt and slide out the battery tray then remove the attached harnesses and the other ECU.

Remove the end of the gear linkages by pushing together the white clips while lifting them clear of the gearbox selector arm. Disconnect the reverse light switch (pictured below) and the crankshaft sensor and stow them to one side. Undo the earth point on top of the gearbox and remove the upper bell-housing bolts.

Clamp the flexible part of the slave cylinder and disconnect the hydraulic connection to it (pictured below).

Release both gear selector cables from the supporting bracket; to do this just pull the pin (pictured below) on the coloured side of the plastic housing and lift the cable clear.

Finally, while supporting the engine with the cradle, remove the complete gearbox mounting (pictured below).

Raise the vehicle and remove both front road wheels. Remove both hub nuts and release both lower arms. Drain the gearbox fluid and remove both driveshafts from the gearbox and hubs. Undo the cross member support bar and undo the rear gearbox support bracket. Remove the starter motor bolts and stow the unit to one side.

While supporting the gearbox from below using a transmission jack, remove the remaining lower bell housing bolts and slide the gearbox back slightly before rotating it away from the sub-frame, making sure you exercise care. The gearbox can now be lowered to the floor.

With the clutch removed, check the flywheel for signs of heat stress. Clean the first motion shaft splines and any debris from the bell housing (especially important when a release bearing has failed). When comparing the new and old release bearings on this model you may find that they are slightly different (pictured below). This is normal and the new bearing will work perfectly so don’t worry about fitting it.

Excess grease
Put a small dab of high melting point grease (not a copper-based product) on the first motion shaft splines and make sure the new driven plate slides freely back and forth. This not only spreads the grease evenly but also makes sure you have the correct kit. Wipe any excess grease off the shaft and driven plate hub. Using a universal alignment tool and checking the driven plate is the correct way round (note “Getriebe Seite” is German for “Gearbox Side”) the clutch can be bolted to the flywheel evenly and sequentially.

Before fitting the gearbox make sure the locating dowels are in place and not damaged. Refit any that have become dislodged and refit the gearbox. Make sure the gearbox bell housing bolts are secured before lowering the jack. Refitting is the reverse of the removal.

Clutch replacement – Citroën C3

A clutch replacement on the Citroën can be a little tricky but with the guidance of the experts at LuK, the whole process will become much easier. Nothing out of the ordinary is needed to complete the job. The only special tools required are a transmission jack, an engine support cradle and a long axle stand. A two-post ramp was used in this example as a four-post ramp may not provide enough clearance.

For safety reasons it is considered best practice to disconnect the battery earth lead before commencing work. If the vehicle has alloy wheels it may be fitted with anti-theft wheel bolts, so make sure you have the key before you start.

Open the bonnet, remove the two piece battery cover and disconnect the battery. Lift out the battery by pulling the release tab (pictured below) and pull out the ECU and stow it to one side.

Release and remove the plastic divider separating the other ECU from the battery tray. Disconnect the electrical connections to this ECU and stow the wires to one side. Remove the air filter housing by turning the plastic clip (pictured below) near the rocker cover, disconnecting the attached hoses and slackening the jubilee clip on the throttle body.

Unbolt and slide out the battery tray and remove the attached harnesses. Remove the end of the gear linkages by pushing together the white clips while lifting them clear of the gearbox selector arm. Disconnect the reverse light switch (pictured below) and the crankshaft sensor and stow them to one side.

Undo the earth point on top of the gearbox and remove the upper bell-housing bolts. Clamp the flexible part of the slave cylinder and disconnect the hydraulic connection to it (pictured below).

Release both gear selector cables from the supporting bracket – to do this just pull the pin (pictured below) on the coloured side of the plastic housing and lift the cable clear.

Finally, while supporting the engine with the cradle, remove the complete gearbox mounting (pictured below).

Handling the gearbox
Raise the vehicle and remove both front road wheels. Remove both hub nuts and release both lower arms. Drain the gearbox oil and remove both driveshafts from the gearbox and hubs. Undo the cross member support bar and undo the rear gearbox support bracket. Remove the starter motor bolts and stow the unit to one side. Undo the bolt securing the exhaust downpipe to the gearbox; it can be quite rusty and it’s difficult to get to so you’ll need to take care.

While supporting the gearbox from below using a transmission jack, remove the remaining lower bell housing bolts and slide the gearbox back slightly and rotate it away from the sub-frame exercising care. The gearbox can now be lowered to the floor.

With the clutch removed, check the flywheel for signs of heat stress. Clean the first motion shaft splines and any debris from the bell housing (especially important when a release bearing has failed). When comparing the new and old release bearings on this model you may find that they are slightly different (pictured below). This is normal and the new bearing will work perfectly so don’t worry about fitting it.

Put a small dab of high melting point grease (not a copper-based product) on the first motion shaft splines and make sure the new driven plate slides freely back and forth. This not only spreads the grease evenly but also makes sure you have the correct kit. Wipe any excess grease off the shaft and driven plate hub. Using a universal alignment tool and checking the driven plate is the correct way round (note “Getriebe Seite” is German for “Gearbox Side”) the clutch can be bolted to the flywheel evenly and sequentially.

Before fitting the gearbox make sure the locating dowels are in place and not damaged. Refit any that have become dislodged and refit the gearbox. Make sure the gearbox bell housing bolts are secured before lowering the jack. Refitting is the reverse of the removal.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

The Citroen Xsara Picasso is one of the most popular MPV vehicles on the road. With well over 230,000 vehicles in the UK. LuK, a brand of Schaeffler Automotive Aftermarket, takes a closer look at the clutch replacement on the 2.0hdi model.

If the vehicle is fitted with alloy wheels make sure the locking key is available before starting the job. We used a two-post ramp and two transmission jacks for the replacement in this example. Disconnect the battery terminal, which can be done from either the battery or the junction box under the bonnet. Remove the engine cover, disconnect the air flow sensor and remove the air filter housing from its position.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

Disconnect the reverse light switch and the earth lead connection which is found on the gearbox. The excess wiring loom can be secured to the body using a bungee cable. It is possible to remove the top two bell housing bolts and three starter motor bolts.
The gearbox mount centre bolt can be slackened while the vehicle is at ground level, but do not remove it completely. Raise the vehicle and remove the engine under-tray. Support the engine and gearbox using the transmission jacks.
When supporting the engine do so from under the sump and use a wood block to protect it. Drain the gearbox oil, remove N/S front wheel, remove the N/S ball joint bolt and detach from its position.

Remove the driveshaft

Remove the N/S driveshaft from the gearbox and secure safely to the side using a bungee cable. Remove the two bolts that hold in place the gearbox back plate.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

Remove the bolt holding the hydraulic pipe to the slave cylinder, as this prevents it from getting damaged when lowering the gearbox.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

Remove the two bolts securing the slave cylinder in position.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

Disconnect the gear selector cables by pressing the push connector and they will pop from their position. The cables can then be removed by unclipping from the gear selector unit which can still be left bolted to the gearbox.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

Disconnect the speedo multi-plug. Remove the gearbox mount centre bolt that was slackened earlier (Fig 6) and slowly lower the gearbox and engine so it is clear of its mounting position.

How to change a clutch on a Citroen Xsara Picasso

Remove the remaining bell housing bolts, pull the gearbox away from the engine and slowly lower to the floor.
Remove the clutch and release bearing. Check the bell housing for any debris and oil contamination and rectify before refitting the gearbox. The release bearing should always be changed during a clutch replacement while the release arm should be checked for smooth operation and for wear on the ball pivot. Check the flywheel for signs of heat stress, such as hair line fractures or cracks. The surface of the flywheel should also be checked to make sure it is within the manufacturer’s wear tolerance.

The clutch on this vehicle sits into a recess in the flywheel and this should also be checked and cleaned. If the surface of the flywheel is to be skimmed, make sure that the same amount is taken from the clutch bolting surface; failure to check and rectify these areas may cause the clutch to operate incorrectly.

Slide the new clutch plate

Before fitting the new clutch disc, make sure the input shaft is clean and free from any wear. Smear a little high melting point grease on the splines then slide the new clutch plate up and down the splines a couple of times, remove the plate and wipe any excess grease off.

Refitting the gearbox is the reversal of removal, remembering to refill the gearbox oil to the correct level when the gearbox is refitted.

How to fit a clutch on a Citroen C5

RECOMMENDED LABOUR TIME: 6 HOURS LUK PART NUMBER: 623304100

This specific vehicle is fitted with a dual mass flywheel (DMF) and a pull type clutch which, even today, can present some issues when being installed.

In addition to the Citroën C5, this guide is also relevant to some passenger car and light commercial vehicle applications from both Peugeot and Fiat. One thing to always remember, whatever the application, is that it is essential to replace the fork and pivot with each clutch replacement.

For this repair we used a two-post ramp, engine support, long axle stand, transmission jack and an alignment tool for the clutch driven plate. If the vehicle is fitted with alloy wheels then you should ensure the locking nut is available before starting the repair. For safety purposes, also disconnect the battery earth lead.

Better access

Remove the engine covers, disconnect the air filter hoses, remove the air filter housing and base plate and the electronic multi-plugs. The auxiliary fuse box should be removed to allow better access to the top of the transmission. Disconnect the gear change cables from the gear change selector mechanism on the top of the gearbox and then remove the mechanism.

The slave cylinder is removed next and should be carefully cable-tied clear to one side (there is no need to disconnect the hydraulic pipe).

Remove the starter motor, top bell housing bolts and the gearbox mounting and bracket. Disconnect the speedo and reverse light multi-plugs and then install the engine support beam.

Remove the wheel arch cover

Raise the vehicle, remove both front wheels and carefully pull the ABS and brake pad warning sensor wires from their securing rubbers on both sides. Remove the wheel arch cover from the O/S. From under the vehicle remove the engine undershield and disconnect both bottom ball joints and separate. Drain the gearbox oil, remembering to replace the drain plug afterwards.

Remove the pipes from the intercooler to the turbo and their securing brackets attached to the gearbox. Remove the gearbox inspection plate and the three bolts for the gear linkage support bracket.

You should then disconnect the brackets securing the air conditioning hoses and stow clear to one side.

Carefully pull the O/S drive shaft out of the gearbox, undo the N/S drive shaft bearing support and pull the drive shaft out of the gearbox.

Slacken the two sub frame bolts on the O/S and remove the two bolts on the N/S. Support the gearbox with a suitable gearbox jack and then disconnect the remaining bell housing bolts (with this pull type gearbox the release fork will separate from the bearing when the gearbox is removed). The gearbox can then be gently lowered to the floor by rotating slightly to allow it to clear the sub frame.

It is important to note that the old release bearing will be attached to the pressure cover and this is where most will go wrong as the new release bearing, prior to fitting the new clutch, will be pushed into the clutch cover. This should never be the case. The release bearing MUST be installed to the release fork first.


On this model it is necessary to check the serviceability of the DMF. There should be no more than 15 – 30mm of free rotational movement between the primary and secondary masses. If there is any movement greater than this, or no movement at all, then it is recommended that the DMF is replaced. On this occasion the radial tolerance was within specifications but the axial tolerance (1.6mm is allowed) was outside its limit (2.1mm) so the DMF was replaced.

Refitting the gearbox is the reverse of removal, however the new release bearing will have to be attached to the new release fork. Do not locate the bearing back into the cover.

With the gearbox back in place the release bearing can then be snapped into the cover with the aid of an appropriate lever through the clutch cylinder aperture.

You should hear a nice healthy ‘click’ as the bearing locates into the clutch cover. To ensure the bearing is connected fully, carefully operate the fork with the lever in the other direction to operate the clutch. As there is no gearbox level plug, the gearbox is topped back up through the reverse plunger aperture with 1.8 litres of VM specified transmission oil.

For the latest in online support log on to

MEET THEM AT MECHANEX

Schaeffler Automotive Aftermarket’s three quality brands – LuK, INA and FAG – will all be in attendance throughout 2015 at our MECHANEX trade shows.

Offering visitors the opportunity to talk to Schaeffler’s group of experienced experts who will be on hand to offer helpful demonstrations and workshop hints, attendees can also find out about the latest technologies that will soon be appearing in their workshop.

Citroen 2.0l HDi – Auxiliary belt issue

A 2008 Citroen 2.0L HDi had been fitted with a new Synchronous Belt Drive System (SBDS) kit. A few thousand miles later, the SBDS failed prematurely. The mechanic reported valve-to-piston contact and confirmed that the engine was extensively damaged. An element of mystery was provided by the fact that the drive belt from the Auxiliary Belt Drive System (ABDS) was no longer present.

Premature failure

A wide number of associated installation issues are known to contribute to the premature failure of an SBDS. These include incorrect tensioner set up; insufficient torque on the tensioner bolts; and subsequent failure of a water pump that was not installed at the same time as the timing belt kit.

Good workshop practices can be used to manage many of these issues however.

Workshop procedures

Appropriate installation procedures seemed to have been followed and a timing belt kit was fitted.

Investigation

A diagnosis is impossible without a comprehensive examination of the vehicle. Once the Gates inspector (pictured, above) arrived, an immediate attempt was made to establish the sequence of events that led to the failure of the SBDS.

Two things were immediately apparent:

1) The ABDS belt was missing completely

2) The water pump had not been changed

Let’s consider the second point first.

Replacement option

Although it was clear that this water pump hadn’t contributed to the engine damage and had remained fully operational, the inspector recommended water pump replacement at the scheduled change as it had completed the same duty cycle as the belt.

An undetected leak will lead to drive system failure so it is sensible to install a new water pump at the same time as the kit. This achieves a complete drive system overhaul and preserves drive system integrity. Moreover, if the water pump is sourced from the same supplier as the belt kit, a single investigation will be required in the event of any subsequent problems.

Missing belt

The missing ABDS belt drew attention to other factors that may contribute to premature drive system failure. These include misalignment and foreign substances (oil, water, debris) in the drive.

The garage confirmed that although a visual check of the ABDS was made at the time of the original job, none of the ABDS parts were replaced. The ABDS was examined and scoring was evident on the SBDS drive cover. This suggested belt chafing and this may have been a factor causing the belt to break.

Debris in the main drive system would compromise the timing belt. So what if the debris included fragments from the missing ABDS belt? The SBDS cover was removed and the sequence of events became clear. Fragments of the ABDS belt were wrapped around the crankshaft pulley. This had wound down into the drive, causing the pulley to fail and making valve-to-piston contact inevitable.

Overview

Although garages may be confident that good workshop practices have been observed, failure to replace the water pump at the same time as the belt kit undermines their case.

Although the water pump was not culpable in this case, strong evidence links them with premature SBDS failure, therefore Gates recommends replacement in every case.

How to fit a clutch on a Citroen C5

RECOMMENDED LABOUR TIME: 6 HOURS LUK PART NUMBER: 623304100

This specific vehicle is fitted with a dual mass flywheel (DMF) and a pull type clutch which, even today, can present some issues when being installed.

In addition to the Citroën C5, this guide is also relevant to some passenger car and light commercial vehicle applications from both Peugeot and Fiat. One thing to always remember, whatever the application, is that it is essential to replace the fork and pivot with each clutch replacement.

For this repair we used a two-post ramp, engine support, long axle stand, transmission jack and an alignment tool for the clutch driven plate. If the vehicle is fitted with alloy wheels then you should ensure the locking nut is available before starting the repair. For safety purposes, also disconnect the battery earth lead.

Better access

Remove the engine covers, disconnect the air filter hoses, remove the air filter housing and base plate and the electronic multi-plugs. The auxiliary fuse box should be removed to allow better access to the top of the transmission. Disconnect the gear change cables from the gear change selector mechanism on the top of the gearbox and then remove the mechanism.

The slave cylinder is removed next and should be carefully cable-tied clear to one side (there is no need to disconnect the hydraulic pipe).

Remove the starter motor, top bell housing bolts and the gearbox mounting and bracket. Disconnect the speedo and reverse light multi-plugs and then install the engine support beam.

Remove the wheel arch cover

Raise the vehicle, remove both front wheels and carefully pull the ABS and brake pad warning sensor wires from their securing rubbers on both sides. Remove the wheel arch cover from the O/S. From under the vehicle remove the engine undershield and disconnect both bottom ball joints and separate. Drain the gearbox oil, remembering to replace the drain plug afterwards.

Remove the pipes from the intercooler to the turbo and their securing brackets attached to the gearbox. Remove the gearbox inspection plate and the three bolts for the gear linkage support bracket.

You should then disconnect the brackets securing the air conditioning hoses and stow clear to one side.

Carefully pull the O/S drive shaft out of the gearbox, undo the N/S drive shaft bearing support and pull the drive shaft out of the gearbox.

Slacken the two sub frame bolts on the O/S and remove the two bolts on the N/S. Support the gearbox with a suitable gearbox jack and then disconnect the remaining bell housing bolts (with this pull type gearbox the release fork will separate from the bearing when the gearbox is removed). The gearbox can then be gently lowered to the floor by rotating slightly to allow it to clear the sub frame.

It is important to note that the old release bearing will be attached to the pressure cover and this is where most will go wrong as the new release bearing, prior to fitting the new clutch, will be pushed into the clutch cover. This should never be the case. The release bearing MUST be installed to the release fork first.


On this model it is necessary to check the serviceability of the DMF. There should be no more than 15 – 30mm of free rotational movement between the primary and secondary masses. If there is any movement greater than this, or no movement at all, then it is recommended that the DMF is replaced. On this occasion the radial tolerance was within specifications but the axial tolerance (1.6mm is allowed) was outside its limit (2.1mm) so the DMF was replaced.

Refitting the gearbox is the reverse of removal, however the new release bearing will have to be attached to the new release fork. Do not locate the bearing back into the cover.

With the gearbox back in place the release bearing can then be snapped into the cover with the aid of an appropriate lever through the clutch cylinder aperture.

You should hear a nice healthy ‘click’ as the bearing locates into the clutch cover. To ensure the bearing is connected fully, carefully operate the fork with the lever in the other direction to operate the clutch. As there is no gearbox level plug, the gearbox is topped back up through the reverse plunger aperture with 1.8 litres of VM specified transmission oil.

For the latest in online support log on to www.repxpert.com.

MEET THEM AT MECHANEX

Schaeffler Automotive Aftermarket’s three quality brands – LuK, INA and FAG – will all be in attendance throughout 2015 at our MECHANEX trade shows.

Offering visitors the opportunity to talk to Schaeffler’s group of experienced experts who will be on hand to offer helpful demonstrations and workshop hints, attendees can also find out about the latest technologies that will soon be appearing in their workshop.

How do Stop-Start systems work?

The last few years have seen the introduction of Stop-Start systems by many manufacturers across various vehicle models to improve fuel consumption and reduce exhaust emissions.

One of the main problems the introduction of Stop-Start systems has caused is that when the starter is operated the voltage in the vehicle’s electrical system can drop. In normal circumstances this is not a problem, the vehicle is not usually in “driving mode” and it doesn’t matter if some of the vehicle electrical systems do not function during starter motor operation (exterior lights, heating & air conditioning and audio systems, for example). However, during driving this is not acceptable for reasons of safety and driver convenience.

To counter this problem most systems use an additional power supply to ensure that voltage-critical equipment will not stop operating during starter motor operation. For some models this consists of a large capacitor that is charged by the alternator using engine power, or kinetic energy generated during deceleration and braking.

Considerable thought has been given to the safety mechanisms; most, if not all, Stop-Start systems will not operate if any of the doors or the bonnet is open and will only operate if sufficient vacuum is available to ensure the normal operation of the braking system.
As the use of Stop-Start technology is increasingly adopted, there are now as many systems as there are manufacturers, but they can be categorised as follows:

  • Those using a “conventional” starter motor
  • Those using a combined starter motor/alternator

Although some models use a conventional starter motor for cold start and Stop-Start operation, it is usually modified to ensure it can withstand the extra use it will encounter. However, the time taken to start the engine with this system is thought by some to be too long so other models are using a different approach.
Battery technology is also changing, with the extra starting cycles requiring a more robust battery construction. Absorbent glass matt (AGM) batteries, Gel batteries or the slightly cheaper enhanced flooded batteries (EFB) variants can be found in most vehicles with Stop-Start systems. Replacement of these batteries may necessitate programming of the vehicle’s computer system to allow the battery degradation process to be monitored. On many models the Stop-Start system will be disabled for up to 24 hours following battery disconnection or replacement to allow the battery condition to be evaluated.

Which Stop-Start Application Do They Use?
Toyota Yaris

The Stop-Start system of the Toyota Yaris has its starter motor in constant engagement with the flywheel ring gear and then the ring gear is connected to the engine flywheel with a one way clutch. This, together with recognition of the engine’s static crankshaft position, allows instantaneous ignition of the correct cylinder, thereby reducing starting time.

It is interesting to note that the number of starter motor operations is recorded and the calculated “end of starter lifespan” is indicated by a flashing warning lamp on the instrument panel. After replacement of the starter motor the counter has to be reset.

PSA group

Using a conventional type of starter motor for cold start, the Peugeot/Citroen group employs a combined starter motor and alternator assembly (so called reversible alternator) for the Stop-Start system. Connected to the engine crankshaft with the auxiliary drive belt, it provides silent operation and short starting time.

Unlike conventional alternators, diodes are not used; instead voltage rectification and motor operation use metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Presently, it would appear that it is only the “e-HDi” models that use the aforementioned capacitor.

3 Essential Items That You’ll Need When Servicing Stop-Start Systems

Starters & Alternators 

Used in many modern vehicles, StARS (Stop start Alternator Reversible System) consists of a reversible alternator that replaces the conventional alternator and starter motor. The reversible alternator provides the function of alternator and starter combined with the new design allowing the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy, and visa-versa.

StARS works similar to the conventional alternator where the later applications would have the charge rate controlled by the vehicle ECU (computer controlled and smart charge systems). The new variation now has a separate ECU which administers the reversible alternator and the vehicle’s engine.
When the vehicle is slowed down by the user the ECU analyses the speed of the car and if/when the speed falls under 5mph the ECU switches off the engine. Once the brake pedal is released the ECU then gives an order to start the engine again. The reversible alternator plays the part of the starter motor to achieve this.

The system is designed to work in 5 phases:
1. The vehicle is switched on and the ECU will crank/start the engine. This is achieved by the battery providing electrical energy and the reversible alternator then acts as a starter motor to help crank the engine.

2. During normal driving (when the vehicle is not being slowed down) the reversible alternator then acts as a conventional alternator by converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy and charging the battery.

3. Once the vehicle speed has been reduced below 5mph by braking the StARS ECU gives a command to stop the engine.

4. Once the brake pedal has been released the StARS ECU then gives a command to start the engine again. The battery provides electrical energy and the reversible alternator plays the part of the starter motor and cranks the engine.

5. The vehicle is switched off and the ECU will stop the engine

AUTOELECTRO provides a whole array of replacement starter motors and alternators for modern Stop-Start systems and applications.

Servicing Data 

AUTODATA has enhanced its online product offering to include technical information on vehicles with Stop-Start technology.
The technical information provided by Autodata on its online system enables technicians to identify the specific location of key elements such as the main battery, additional battery and the Stop-Start capacitor.

Procedures for disconnecting and reconnecting each element are clearly explained along with additional information for servicing the system.

Replacement Batteries
EXIDE has expanded its coverage of the UK car parc with new AGM and ECM batteries. The new products cover vehicles from VW, Audi, Toyota, Ford and a slew of other brands.
Exide’s AGM batteries are claimed to have around three times the lifecycle durability of standard batteries. Parts of “matching quality”, they are designed for cars with Start-Stop and regenerative braking systems. They are also used in standard vehicles to increase endurance and performance.

AGM battery coverage: Audi A1, A4, A5 and Q5; BMW 5, 6, 7, X5 and X6; VW Golf, Polo and Touareg; Chrysler Voyager; Dodge Caliber; Jeep Cherokee and many others.

ECM battery coverage: Ford Fiesta, Galaxy, Focus, Mondeo, B-Max, C-Max and S-Max; Toyota iQ; Mazda CX-5 and a range of other models.