Category Archives: BOSCH

Digital protective shield: when motorcycles and cars talk to each other

New Bosch technology could prevent nearly one-third of all motorcycle accidents

  • Connecting bikes and cars ensures motorcycles’ digital visibility
  • Dirk Hoheisel: “We are creating a digital protective shield for riders.”
  • Riders are 18 times more at risk of being killed in an accident than drivers
  • Bosch development project with partners Autotalks, Cohda Wireless, and Ducati

The first warm days of the year mark the start of motorcycle season – and, unfortunately, a rise in the number of road accidents. Motorcyclists are among the most at-risk road users, 18 times more at risk of being killed in an accident than drivers. Last year, there were approximately 30,000 motorcycle accidents in Germany alone, roughly 600 of which were fatal. One of the main reasons is that riders of two-wheelers are often overlooked in road traffic, both at intersections and during passing. Bosch wants to change that. With its partners Autotalks, Cohda Wireless, and Ducati, it has developed a prototype smart solution. “We let motorcycles and cars talk to each other, creating a digital protective shield for riders,” says Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, a member of the Bosch board of management. The goal is to prevent dangerous situations from occurring in the first place.

“We let motorcycles and cars talk to each other, creating a digital protective shield for riders.”

Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, a member of the Bosch board of management
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Connectivity could prevent nearly one-third of motorcycle accidents

According to estimates by Bosch accident research, motorcycle-to-car communication could prevent nearly one-third of motorcycle accidents. “Through safety systems such as ABS and motorcycle stability control, Bosch has already made riding a two-wheeler significantly safer. By connecting motorcycles, we are taking safety to the next level,” Hoheisel says. Here is how it works: up to ten times a second, vehicles within a radius of several hundred meters exchange information about vehicle types, speed, position, and direction of travel. Long before drivers or their vehicles’ sensors catch sight of a motorcycle, this technology informs them that a motorcycle is approaching, allowing them to adopt a more defensive driving strategy. For example, typical dangerous situations arise when a motorcycle approaches a car from behind on a multi-lane road, ends up in a car’s blind spot, or changes lanes to pass. If the system identifies a potentially dangerous situation, it can warn the rider or driver by sounding an alarm and flashing a warning notice on the dashboard. In this way, all road users receive essential information that actively helps avoid accidents.

Vehicles exchange information within just a few milliseconds

The public WLAN standard (ITS G5) is used as the basis for the exchange of data between motorcycles and cars. Transmission times of just a few milliseconds between transmitter and receiver mean that participating road users can generate and transmit important information relating to the traffic situation. Parked or idling vehicles also transmit data to any surrounding receivers. To allow riders and drivers who are farther away to reliably receive the necessary information, the technology makes use of multi-hopping, which forwards the information automatically from vehicle to vehicle. In critical situations, therefore, all road users know what is happening and are able to take appropriate action in advance.

Bosch Vehicle Systems Analysis FSA Comparative Curves Database

Bosch Vehicle Systems Analysis FSA Comparative Curves Database

This video demonstrates the Bosch Vehicle System Analysis FSA Comparative Curves Database

How to use the Characteristic Curve Recorder on Bosch FSA

How to use the Characteristic Curve Recorder on Bosch FSA

This video demonstrates how to use the Characteristic Curve Recorder on Bosch FSA

Catalytic Converter Analysis with Bosch FSA

Catalytic Converter Analysis with Bosch FSA

This video demonstrates the Catalytic Converter Analysis with Bosch FSA

Battery Starter Compression Analysis with Bosch FSA

Battery Starter Compression Analysis with Bosch FSA

This video demonstrates how to analyse Batter Starter Compression with Bosch FSA

Battery Analysis with Bosch FSA

Battery Analysis with Bosch FSA

This video demonstrates the Battery Analysis of a vehicle using Bosch FSA

With these components, Bosch is automating driving

Automated mobility

  • Automated driving has an impact on all areas of a car and requires profound systems expertise.
  • Redundancy in safety-critical systems such as braking and steering is a must.
  • Bosch manufactures many of the components needed for automated driving in-house.
  • Reliable environment recognition requires combining data from different sensor principles.

Automated driving impacts the entire car: its powertrain, brakes, steering, display instruments, navigation, and sensors, as well as connectivity inside and outside the vehicle. The key to success is an in-depth understanding of all vehicle systems. Few automotive suppliers worldwide have as much knowledge in this area as Bosch, in part because the supplier of technology and services manufactures most of the components needed for automated driving listed below:

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Connected Horizon: Automated vehicles rely on environmental information – information that goes beyond what sensors can gather. For instance, they need real-time traffic data on congestion and accidents. This can be achieved only by connecting the vehicle to a server, for which Bosch developed its Connected Horizon solution. This system enables a dynamic preview of the upcoming route and corresponding adjustments to driving strategy. Connected Horizon is what allows automated vehicles to think ahead. This is beneficial for the comfort and safety of the driving experience. For instance, connected vehicles are warned in advance of danger spots before a blind bend or hilltop and can ease off the accelerator in preparation.

Electric steering: Fail-safe, electric power steering is a key technology for automated driving. Even in fallback mode, fail-operational capability allows drivers and automated cars to continue using essential steering functions while maintaining about 50 percent electric steering support in the rare case of a malfunction. This technology will enable automakers to comply with the safety requirements as proposed in the Federal Automated Vehicles Policy documents from the U.S. Department of Transportation and National Traffic Highway Safety Association, for example.

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ESP: The electronic stability program also plays a key role when it comes to automated driving. Delegating responsibility for driving to the vehicle places particular demands on safety-critical systems such as the brakes. To retain maximum control over these systems in the event of the failure, redundancy must be built into the system as a safeguard. In this instance, the ESP brake control system and iBooster electromechanical brake booster (see below) can independently brake the vehicle without the driver having to intervene. Bosch offers ESP as a modular concept that offers the right system for all circumstances and requirements.

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HMI: Automated driving will change the human-machine interface, and calls for modern concepts for communication between car and driver. The driver must be able to intuitively understand and use the system. With its innovative display instruments, Bosch is already offering promising solutions in this area as well: the TFT instrument cluster, for instance, offers maximum flexibility in processing combined with brilliant clarity. By using head-up displays, Bosch puts information such as speed, navigation prompts, and warnings directly in the driver’s field of view. This information is superimposed on the vehicle’s surroundings in such a way that the two seem to blend seamlessly at a distance of around two meters ahead of the vehicle.

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iBooster: With the iBooster, Bosch has developed a vacuum-independent, electromechanical brake booster that meets the requirements for modern braking systems. It can be used in all powertrain concepts and is especially well suited for hybrid and electric vehicles. In the iBooster, the actuation of the brake pedal is recorded by the built-in pedal-travel sensor and transmitted to the control unit. The control unit calculates the triggering signal for the electric motor, which uses a two-stage transmission to convert its torque into the required power assistance. In a standard master cylinder, the power provided by the booster is transformed into hydraulic pressure.

Maps: Without high-resolution, up-to-date maps, there can be no automated driving. The maps provide vehicles with information about changing traffic situations, such as traffic jams or construction, that fall outside the area on-board sensors can monitor. Bosch’s radar and video sensors capture and transmit important real-time traffic data for the creation of high-resolution maps for automated driving.

Lidar sensor: In addition to radar, video, and ultrasonic sensors, Bosch also uses lidar sensors in its automated test vehicles. The various sensor principles complement each other very well and combine data to ensure reliable environment recognition. Automated vehicles use this data to derive their driving strategy. Bosch views lidar sensors as an important addition to its portfolio.

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Radar sensor: As one of several sensor principles, radar sensors provide important 360-degree information about their surroundings within a distance of up to 250 meters for automated vehicles. A radar sensor’s main task is to detect objects and to measure their speed and position relative to the movement of the vehicle. Furthermore, Bosch radar sensors send frequency-modulated radar waves measuring between 76 and 77 GHz via a transmitting antenna. These waves are reflected by objects in front of the vehicle. The relative speed and distance of objects are measured using the Doppler effect and the delay generated by the frequency shifts between the emitted and received signal. Comparing the amplitude and phase of the measured radar signals makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the position of the object.

Ultrasonic sensor: Ultrasonic sensors are needed in automated driving, primarily for close-range environment recognition of up to 6 meters and at low speeds, such as during parking. The sensors employ the sonar technique, which bats, for example, also use in navigation. They emit short ultrasound signals that are reflected by obstacles. The echoes are registered by the sensors and analyzed by a central control unit.

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Video sensor: With a 3D measurement range of over 50 meters, the Bosch stereo video camera provides important optical information about the vehicle’s surroundings. Each of the two highly sensitive image sensors, equipped with color recognition and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, has a resolution of 1280 by 960 megapixels and is capable of processing extreme contrasts. The distance between the optical axes of the two lenses is just 12 centimeters. The stereo video camera captures objects spatially and calculates their distance, plus it identifies clear spaces. The information from the sensor is combined with data from other sensor principles to generate a model of the surroundings for automated vehicles.

“Just driving” was yesterday – the personal assistant is tomorrow

Bosch’s new show car shows how quickly the future of driving is becoming a reality

My home, my workplace, my car: connectivity is turning cars into a third living space alongside people’s own home and their office. Bosch is showing what that actually means, and what it will be like to drive a car in the future, with its new show car. It offers intuitive operation and is always online, connected with its surroundings, and driving itself. “The connectivity of cars with their surroundings and with the internet is a key challenge for future mobility,” says Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH. Automated and connected functions in cars not only make each journey safer and more comfortable, they also turn the car into a truly personal assistant. “In this way, we are making connectivity a personal experience and giving people more time for actual living, even while driving their car,” Hoheisel says.

“The connectivity of cars with their surroundings and with the internet is a key challenge for future mobility. In this way, we are making connectivity a personal experience and giving people more time for actual living, even while driving their car.”

Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH

Intelligent display and user interfaces

More individuality and easier operation become apparent as soon as you get into the show car. The driver monitor camera recognizes the driver and adjusts the steering wheel, mirror, and temperature accordingly. In fact, as if by magic, the car also sets the color scheme of the display and automatically loads appointments, favorite music, the latest podcasts, and the navigation destination that the driver programmed while still at the kitchen table. The camera is always alert during driving, too, especially when the driver’s eyes get a little heavy. It detects fatigue and microsleep at the wheel, both of which are often the cause of serious accidents. It is usually possible to spot the onset of these early on from movements of the eyelids. The system determines the driver’s ability to concentrate, or degree of tiredness, and issues a warning if necessary. This makes driving even safer. What is more, the driver tiredness detection system constantly monitors the driver’s steering behavior so it can intervene directly in the event of abrupt movements.

The human machine interface (HMI) turns cars into personal assistants on four wheels. This interface between people and vehicles provides drivers with important information when it is needed and is an attentive alert companion in every situation. In the future, thanks to more personalized communication, automated and connected functions will offer intuitive, comfortable, and safe operation, and drivers will be able to set them to meet their personal requirements – whether in a traffic jam, in urban traffic, or on a family outing. To this end, the show car presents gesture control with haptic feedback. It uses ultrasonic sensors that produce a noticeable resistance whenever the driver performs a gesture in precisely the area that the camera records. This makes gesture control even easier to use and less distracting for drivers, since they can change the information on the display, accept phone calls, or call up a new playlist without touching it. An innovative touch display in the show car also makes it safer and more convenient to use fingertip control. The display provides a haptic response by vibrating each time the driver’s fingertips touch it. This means drivers can sense different structures that feel like real buttons on what is in fact a flat surface. That way, they can easily find the desired function on the display, for instance to adjust the volume of the music, without looking away from the road.

Mobility with smart connectivity: Cars are turning into people’s third living space

The show car also demonstrates how cars are turning into people’s third living space thanks to automation and connectivity. According to Bosch’s “Connected car effect 2025” study, automated driving could enable people who drive a lot to make better use of some 100 hours of their time each year. Once the car detects that automated driving is possible and the driver agrees to hand over control, the car takes over – safely and smoothly. Since the show car is an active part of the internet of things, drivers can carry their digital lives over into their car; perhaps sending e-mails to the office colleagues or video chatting with friends. All this is possible in the time automated driving saves. Flexible display concepts really come into their own here. Drivers can simply gesture to seamlessly switch like magic between various displays of e-mails, chats, videos, and automated and connected functions.

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Connected with the smart home, the repair shop, and the whole world

What about planning your evening meal when on the road? Connectivity can help here, too – this time with the smart home. Mykie, the Bosch kitchen assistant, can suggest recipes online in the car. A glance from the car into the connected refrigerator will show whether the necessary ingredients are ready at home. Connectivity between cars and smart homes comes into play even before the journey starts: as soon as drivers enter the car, a display shows them the status of their own home. Has a window still been left open? Is the door locked? It takes just a gesture or a fingertip on the display to automatically lock the doors and monitor the status at home. Moreover, the connected car is also linked to the repair shop. It notifies drivers when an inspection is due, it schedules an appointment at the repair shop upon request, and it can ensure the necessary spare parts are in stock when it gets there. This level of comfort extends to parking: in Bosch’s community-based parking service, cars use the sensors in parking assistants to report available curbside spaces. This information is sent via the cloud to a digital parking map and provided to other vehicles.

Bosch launches its automated driving initiative in China

In order to get automated driving off the ground in China, Bosch has signed a collaboration agreement with the Chinese internet group Baidu and the map providers AutoNavi and NavInfo. The four partners are working on a solution that will let them use information collected by Bosch’s radar and video sensors in vehicles to generate and update maps. “Automated driving will not be possible without high-precision maps – not in China and not anywhere else in the world either,” says Dr. Rolf Bulander, member of Robert Bosch GmbH’s board of management and chairman of the Mobility Solutions business sector, in the run-up to Auto Shanghai. Automated vehicles will use the data collected by Bosch sensors to determine their own location, which is essential for automated driving. This data will be compatible with the three partners’ map data. Bosch, AutoNavi, Baidu, and NavInfo want to present their solution before the end of the year.

“Automated driving is a global topic for Bosch. With China we are now starting our fourth testing location after Germany, the U.S., and Japan. ”

Bosch board of management member Dr. Rolf Bulander

74 percent of Chinese want automated driving soon

Bosch and the Baidu internet group are even going a step further. Together, they have set up a test vehicle on the basis of a Jeep Cherokee for partially automated driving on Chinese freeways. The test vehicle is equipped with numerous Bosch components. These include, among other things, five mid-section radar sensors and a multi-purpose camera for environment recognition, as well as an ESP braking control system and electronic power steering. “Automated driving is a global topic for Bosch,” says Bulander. “With China we are now starting our fourth testing location after Germany, the U.S., and Japan.” As the world’s largest automotive market and with roughly 28 million vehicles now being produced annually, China is also an important sales market for automated driving technologies. Chinese consumers are already very open to the topic. In a representative Bosch survey carried out in six countries, 74 percent of the Chinese interviewed declared themselves in favor of the rapid introduction of automated driving in their country. By way of comparison: in Germany, this figure was 33 percent of those surveyed, while in the U.S. it was 31 percent.

Bosch experiences growth in China with automation, connectivity, and electrification

Automated driving is just one potential field of growth for Bosch in China, however. At Auto Shanghai, the company is presenting its concept study that shows how connectivity can transform a car from a mere means of transportation into a driver’s personal assistant. Modern display instruments and user interfaces accentuate the advantages of automated and connected driving and will enable safe, relaxed driving in the future. Bosch is also equipped to grow in the fields of powertrain technology and electrification. With its customized gasoline and diesel direct injection systems, its systems solutions for hybrid and electric vehicles, and its extensive modular concept for CNG powertrains, Bosch can help Chinese manufacturers to meet the China6 emissions standard.

Bosch Mobility Solutions also overtakes the Chinese market in 2016

China is both an important and very successful market for Bosch. In 2016, the supplier of technology and services recorded sales of RMB 66.3 billion (Euro 9 billion) in the Middle Kingdom with its mobility solutions. This was an increase of 23.5 percent over the previous year. China’s automotive market grew by 14 percent in the same period. “China is and remains a synonym for growth for us. In 2016, we generated 20 percent of our Mobility Solutions sector sales here,” says Bulander. Bosch currently employs more than 34,000 associates in the Mobility Solutions sector in China at 21 manufacturing ¬sites. These include more than 4,600 developers working on innovations for the local market in 12 Bosch technology centers.

How to Improve Your KTS Diagnostic Capabilities. Part 8: Understanding the built-in multimeter and oscilloscope.

KTS Diagnostic Made ‘ESI’ from Robert Bosch

This regular series of technical articles from Bosch focuses on how to get the best out  of its ESI[tronic] 2.0 software, which is used in conjunction with the KTS range of diagnostic tools for vehicle fault diagnosis and service function procedures.

In this month’s issue we’re going to introduce you to the added benefit of vehicle diagnosis, using the built-inmulti-meter or oscilloscope functions included in the KTS Vehicle Communication Interface (VCI), in conjunction with the serial diagnostic capabilities of the Bosch ESI 2.0 program.

Many technicians consider a graphing multi-meter or oscilloscope an extra investment, along with all of the other equipment required to effectively work on modern cars today. The good news is that if you own a Bosch KTS 540, then it already has a single channel multi-meter included and our flagship tool – the KTS 570 – features a two channel multi-meter or oscilloscope which is all ready for you to use (see Fig 1).

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The kit contains high quality colour-coded test cables and probes, which use standard 4mm ‘banana’ type connectors. As we all know, often a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) will only give a guide to the general area of a system that is suspected  to be faulty or out of range. Once a DTC is read from the error memory of a control unit, a good fault finding process is required to test the suspected component and its associated electrical circuit. In Bosch ESI 2.0, there are many Service Information System (SIS) repair instructions linked to an error memory code that will suggest a direct measurement needs to be made of the voltage supply, earth path, or signal/command wire or component resistance in the system (see Fig 2).

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These values can be tested using the Bosch KTS multi-meter or oscilloscope, along with ‘guided’ fault finding instructions and technical data through ESI 2.0. This will  give you confidence in your results and should certainly lead to an improved first time fix rate of your customers’ vehicles.

For this article, we’ll concentrate on the multi-meter and scope functions of the KTS 570. Please remember that if you have a KTS 540, there is no scope capability built into the VCI. For technicians that use a separate oscilloscope – such as the Bosch FSA 500 or FSA 720/740 series – then the KTS 540 is
perfectly suitable for multi-meter use.

The KTS multi-meter functions

We’ll first take a look at the Bosch KTS multi-meter functions that can be used alongside the ESI 2.0 vehicle diagnostic program. When the multi-meter is accessed via the main menu (see Fig 3) a new window will appear on-screen with the multi-meter display and measurement selection options.

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Now you can overlay the multi-meter results screen over ESI 2.0 and see the serial diagnostic data and direct measurements side by side (see Fig 4).

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The test results will be wirelessly displayed on your PC screen, with the measurements taken by the probes attached to the KTS VCI which is connected to the vehicle (see Fig 5).

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The readings can be shown in a numerical form, with a useful bar graph, or in a graphing trace format, with up to a minute across the screen. This gives the user more convenience, depending on the measurements being taken. Another great feature is that, just like the actual value time profile display in ESI 2.0, the multi-meter graph can be paused, reviewed, saved and printed (if necessary) for reference (see Fig 6), showing battery voltage and current upon starting the engine.

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For voltage and current readings, we have the choice of DC, AC or EFF (root mean square) settings on both channels and resistance measuring up to 1 M Ω on channel 1. You can connect a Bosch amps clamp with adaptor for non-intrusive current measurements to be displayed on screen. A really useful additional feature of the KTS multi-meter is the circuit break and short circuit function, which you can configure to emit an audible warning signal when you conduct a wiggle test on the suspect harness to help you find wiring faults along a loom.

The KTS oscilloscope

Now we’ll look at our Bosch KTS 570 two channel oscilloscope functions that can be used for even greater in-depth testing of electrical systems and components. The beauty of using an oscilloscope is that it opens up a whole new dimension of system diagnosis by presenting to the user an accurate graphical representation of voltage over time. This means you can see in detail what is actually happening in an electrical circuit in real time. Fig 7 shows a PD injector and crankshaft sensor signal.

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Opened from the main menu, the oscilloscope screen can be viewed alongside the ESI 2.0 program and offers many customisable settings that enable you to effectively capture and display the test results you need. Trigger points can be set to be sure that signal recording starts where you want it to and waveform display options can be used to get the best results. There are too many options to describe them all here, but if you hover your cursor over any icon or soft key a ‘tool tip’ pops up with a description (see Fig 8).

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The time base for both channels can be set between 50 micro seconds and 1 second across the screen. The safe continuous input voltage to the VCI is a maximum of 60V and the scale of measurement in voltage can display from 100mV (10mV/division) up to 200V (20V/div) up the screen. In the current
measurement, the amps scale can be selected between 30A and 1,000A. If you pause the scope recording the buffer memory holds the previous 25 screen captures, which can be scrolled through and reviewed. This is essential if you’re searching for an intermittent fault.

If only a single channel measurement is required then the blue and yellow cables can be used for potential free testing when the black earth cable is connected to channel two. This set-up can be particularly useful for testing both signal wires of an inductive speed sensor, for example.

When a signal is being collected, the ESI 2.0 oscilloscope software automatically starts to calculate the specific signal on/off times and frequency of the waveform, if it is a repeated signal such as a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) duty cycle. This is really useful if you’re checking the command signal
to a component, such as a radiator fan control module (as shown in Fig 9).

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Another great feature of the scope is the ability to choose the channel option for signal  acquisition via the coloured test cables connected to the channel inputs of the VCI.

Additionally, you can switch to the ‘PIN’ input option, where the signal will be taken rom the communication pins of the 16 pin OBD socket that will already be connected to the car. The earth pins 4 and 5 and power supply pin 16 are not available to scope this way but any of the other pins are  (depending on the vehicle configuration). For example, a single wire ‘K’ line on pin 7 or a CAN Bus
signal on the traditional pins of 3 & 11 or 6 & 14 could be ‘internally’ tested (as seen in Fig 10). This can be a very quick and easy way to investigate if any control unit communication problems occur.

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What are you waiting for?

If you use a Bosch KTS 570 and haven’t tried oscilloscope testing, then we highly recommend that you give it go. This article is intended as a brief overview of the multimeter and scope capabilities within Bosch KTS as, in reality, we could write a whole book on the subject!

The Bosch Automotive training course ‘WTE1 operation of Bosch KTS’ covers an introduction to the in-built multi-meter and scope functions and is a great way to get some experience under your belt. For those looking to step things up a level, the Bosch ‘VSTD9 Oscilloscope Operation and Signal Test Methods’ training course goes into greater detail of oscilloscope testing and waveform analysis.